Gerakan Perempuan Indonesia Tanpa Ideologi
Pada Term of Reference Temu Perempuan Nasional antara lain menyebutkan gerakan perempuan Indonesia mengalami kendala yang disebabkan beragamnya ideologi gerakan, saya tidak setuju, karena menurut pengamatan saya tidak ada ideologi dalam gerakan perempuan.
Hasil pengamatan dan pengalaman saya, gerakan Perempuan Indonesia yang selayaknya memiliki ideologi feminisme ternyata tidak berideologi feminisme. Feminisme yang saya amati selama lebih dari sepuluh tahun berkiprah dalam gerakan perempuan sekedar feminisme sebagai cara praktis berkegiatan (seminar, diskusi, pengorganisasian massa atau komunitas), dan bukan bentuk feminisme dalam artian metode strategi gerakan (sosialisme, radikal), tetapi benar-benar metode pelaksanaan kegiatan yang mungkin bagian utama dari strategi feminisme liberal. Feminisme yang tumbuh dalam gerakan sebagai cara praktis dalam seminar, rapat-rapat, diskusi dan mungkin beberapa sudah menerapkan dalam organisasi maupun struktur, tapi belum diadopsi menjadi ideology pribadi (persons politics) yang aktif maupun yang pensiun dari gerakan perempuan. Feminisme dalam konteks ini adalah feminisme gerakan kolektif dan individu yang secara simultan mengimplementasikan (terejawantahkan dalam keseharian) tujuan melawan dan menghapuskan seksime serta secara simultan melawan rasisme, klasisme yang ada (yang antara lain didorong oleh sistem kapitalisme).
Saya berkesimpulan sebagian kegagalan perempuan selama ini adalah karena feminisme belum menjadi ideologi gerakan, apalagi ideologi personal para aktifis perempuannya. Mengapa saya harus membedakan antara ideologi dan cara praktis. Cara-cara feminisme sebagai praktis memang telah diterapkan pada kurikulum pemberdayaan perempuan di berbagai lini komunitas bawah, menengah maupun atas, tapi yang membedakan ideologi Feminisme dengan ideology lain yang ada dimuka bumi ini adalah kata-kata inclusive-exclusive (femin(e)-isme, perempuan. Yang berarti barang siapa perempuan yang mengaku feminis, taruhannya adalah ideology (gerakan) itu sendiri. Tolok ukurnya sangat kasat mata (perempuan/female/wanita/woman) manakala seorang yang memakai cara praktis feminisme belum tentu ia berideologi feminis. Buktinya tapi apakah sebagai ideologi telah diterapkan didokrinasi sehingga menembus dan menetap ke alam bawah sadar aktifis perempuan (laki-laki) saya sangat menyangsikannya. Hal ini terutama karena sepanjang perjalanan sebagai aktifis saya mendapati bahwa feminisme sebagai cara-cara berorganisasi dan berkegiatan belum ‘menjadi’ dan ‘menjati’ pada diri aktifis perempuan yang berkegiatan dan mengunakan metode feminisme tersebut.
Saya tidak akan bermaksud menggunakan berbagai metode gerakan (dan teori) gerakan feminisme seperti sosialis, liberal, radikal, karena sebagai wacana dan teori bentuk2 feminisme ini lahir dan tumbuh di Barat dan yang survived dan menjadi mainstream adalah feminisme liberal.
Saya hanya menggunakan term feminisme sebagai mana yang dikemukakan oleh Bell Hooks, filsuf Afro-Amerika yang gigih (dengan penekanan tambahan gerakan kolektif dan individu ) yang mewacanakan dan mengkampanyekan “Feminisme bagi semua orang), feminisme menurutnya adalah “feminisme adalah gerakan untuk mengakhiri seksisme, seksis eksploitasi, dan penindasan” atau feminism defined as a movement to end sexist oppression enable men and women, girls and boys to participate equally in revolutionary struggle.
Berangkat dari pemahaman tersebut saya melihat betapa gerakan perempuan di Indonesia akhirnya terbelenggu dan tak dapat beranjak dari sekedar menggunakan “cara-cara praktis feminisme’ (cara-cara dan metode berprespektif gender) tetapi tidak menjadi “feminis” yang memegang ideologi feminisme. Hal ini tampak dari ketidak mandirian berbagai organisasi untuk memberdayakan anggotanya, stafnya, bahkan organisasinya sendiri. Organisasi perempuan di Indonesia bergantung dari funding-pendanaan pihak asing (Barat) padahal secara ideologis pihak inilah yang menindas bangsa Indonesia, termasuk perempuannya, dengan kapitalisasi segala bidang kehipuan dalam lingkup globalisasi. Ketergantungan ini juga tampak pada acara Temu Perempuan Nasional ini.
Jadi menurut saya hal yang paling harus krusial dan mengkhawatirkan adalah feminisme tidak menjadi ideologi para aktivis perempuan, yang mengaku aktifis dan bekerja untuk mengadvokasi berbagai hal dan kebijakan dengan cara-cara praktis feminisme. Hal ini tampak dari tidak adanya SISTERHOOD atau solidaritas politik sesama perempuan untuk mengakhiri seksisme. Tidak ada personal is political. Kekuatan ‘feminisme liberal’ yang memberi ruang kebebasan semua bagi pemenuhan seksual perempuan akhirnya tidak memberikan pembebasan yang sejati. Banyak ‘aktifis perempuan’ yang mengadopsi nilai-nilai seksisme (stereotipe perempuan lemah, objek, bergantung pada laki-laki dan lemahnya female bond). Di antaranya adalah mengobjekan dirinya ‘seksualitasnya’ sendiri untuk kepentingan laki-laki (dengan menjadi pasangan laki-laki yang sudah beristri atau sudah memiliki pasangan lain) atau mempraktekan poligami, atau memberi keleluasaan ‘kebebasan seksual’-perempuan bukan sebagai bagian perlawanan tapi justru melanggengkan kebebasan mengobjekkan seksual perempuan bagi laki-laki yang berpoligami. Sementara pasangan perempuan lain (non aktifis) yang pasangannya menjadi pasangan aktifis perempuan tidak mengetahui atau menyadari apalagi mengerti sisterhood. Sisterhood di sini berarti tindakan pribadi perempuan harus dinilai secara politik apakah melanggengkan patriarki atau menguntungkan patriarki. Lagi pula sexual freedom hanya bisa terjadi jika ada sexual justice. Sementara banyak aktifis memanfaatkannya untuk kepentingan pribadi dan seringkali tidak mengindahkan sisterhood perasaan/kepentingan sosial/politik perempuan lain.
Sebagai contoh konkrit adalah aktifis perempuan yang mempraktekan seksual bebas dengan melakukan hubungan seksual dengan laki-laki beristri/punya pacar, padahal istri/perempuan yang menjadi istri/pacar tersebut tidak tahu bahwa pasangannya punya pasangan lain, padahal ia akan keberatan dan sedih, serta tidak mau di poligami, apalagi memegang ideologi atau pandangan kebebasan seksual sama (‘sexual liberation’). Pada konteks ini perempuan tahu bahwa di Indonesia masih belum ada keadilan seksual, tetap saja mempraktekan kebebasan seksual yang belum tentu memiliki effek positif bagi gerakan pembebasan perempuan dari seksisme. Itu baru pilihan personal aktifis perempuan yang bisa berdampak pada keberlanjutan seksisme, aktifis perempuan yang mendukung seksisme.
Hal-hal yang lebih bersifat kolektif membutuhkan kesadaran dan praktek ideologi feminisme aktifis perempuan serta membutuhkan sisterhood action, aksi bersama aktifis perempuan untuk tujuan penghentian seksisme mungkin sudah dilakukan tanpa kesadaran ideologi feminis,melainkan sebagai cara praktis feminisme: advokasi kebijakan yang bersifat patriarkal, mendukung dengan kampanye, pemberdayaan perempuan di tingkat grassroot atau menengah, akan tetapi jarang sekali aktifis perempuan yang dengan kesadaran tinggi (bukan berideologi) memberi dukungan dana atau berkontribusi dalam bentuk material/barang atau tenaga secara sukarela dan spontan (secara pribadi), sehingga apapun akhirnya selalu bergantung pada organisasi (yang kita semua tahu dananya adalah dana dari luar negri/funding). Jadi yang “berideologi Feminisme adalah Organisasi Perempuan bukan aktifis perempuan”. Seperti saat Demo Hari Perempuan 8 Maret 2006 di Bapenas, dana tidak ada dsb. Tampaklah dalam realitas nyata kini, aktifis lama (generasi 1980an, 1990an) yang sudah mapan (bekerja di Funding Agency atau di Kapitalis Institut) tidak turut dalam aksi ini, apalagi menyumbangkan dananya. Hal ini menunjukkan tidak kontinunya dan konsistenya perjuangan aktifis perempuan. Bahwa regerasi diperlukan, tetapi lebih diperlukan lagi dukungan para aktifis perempuan yang sudah ‘mapan’, meninggalkan gerakan perempuan, manakala seksisme belum lagi tumbang sama saja melanggengkan patriarki. Bahwa pilihan pribadi itu bisa dihargai, ada baiknya, demi kelangsungan gerakan dan kepastian hasil di masa depan, perlu ada konsensus bersama dan komitmen bersama. Atau saat saya ikut dalam International Congress on Legal Pluralism Depok, Juni lalu, di mana saya harus membayar dengan dana pinjaman organisasi, meskipun saya menggunakan nama organisasi tersebut. Padahal mungkin jika organisasi KPI telah menjadi organiasi yang mandiri, para anggotanya (lintas kelas, lintas golongan, lintas agama) berkontribusi secara rutin dan telah memiliki program dan strategi pencarian serta penggunaan dana bersama, dan bukan program-program dari Funding, tentunya ada akan ada kemandirian dana bagi hal-hal yang dibutuhkan oleh para anggotanya. Sehingga manakala anggota KPI siapa butuh untuk peningkatan keahlian, atau kursus bisa saja mengajukan support funding dari KPI, tentunya setelah melalui sistem kesepakatan atau kompensasi. Sebut saja dana terebut diambil dari dana Support Donation yang terkumpul dari anggota berkecukupan. Saya juga sangat merasakan betapa sulitnya menjadi mandiri bila sendiri (secara ideologi) seperti saat membuat tabloid CERMIN.
Maka jelas sekali bahwa tanpa ideologi yang menjati, gerakan perempuan di Indonesia akan berjalan di tempat, bergantung pada pihak lain (pendanaan), dan tidak akan ada kontinuitas pribadi. Bila sudah aktifis perempuan sudah hidup mapan, yah sudah, regenerasi pekerjaan. Tanpa komitmen sumbang tenaga (volunteer) aplagi komitmen sumbang dana. Padahal gerakan itu bergerak, continue. Sudah banyak yang paham, bahwa Gerakan Sosial di negara dunia ketiga sengaja dibuat tergantung pada Funding Negara Dunia I yang kapitalistik dan yang membuat Negara Dunia Ketiga Tetap Tak Berdaya, tapi tak ada yang berbuat untuk mengubahnya.
Padahal Indonesia, sebagai negara besar, berpenduduk perempuan banyak dan memiliki landasan ideologi Negara yang secara prinsip bisa sejalan dengan gerakan feminis dapat mulai menanamkan feminisme sebagai ideologi penguat Ideologi Negara (theocracy, sosialist, nasionalist) dan dengan feminisme Tanpa Seksisme.
Pengalaman personal saya dalam berkegiatan memperjuangkan feminisme jelas sekali bahwa aktifis perempuan tak lebih hanyalah para perempuan yang sama dengan perempuan lainnya yang telah terbelenggu ideologi seksisme (pekerja profesional, ibu rumah tangga, dan mayoritas laki-laki) yang tujuan dalam hidupnya adalah mencari kemapanan dan kenyamanan di Dunia yang patriarkal ini (seperti perempuan feminisme liberal di negara kapitalis). Pada akhirnya tak peduli bila bekerja pada agen utama Seksisme di Dunia (negara2 di Amerika Utara dan Eropa Barat), toh yang penting sebagai pribadi hidup aman dan tenteram, persetan dengan perjuangan gerakan perempuan yang mungkin dulu pernah dijalaninya.
Pada konteks Negara Indonesia yang seperti sekarang ini, di mana Rancangan-undang-undang banyak yang merupakan titipan negara Kapitalis untuk keleluasaan Penguasaan Sumber Daya Alam/Tenaga Kerja Indonesa, dengan dibalut investasi dst, Perempuan sesungguhnya masih dapat Menjadi Agen Pertahanan Utama, karena perempuan lah yang menguasai kehidupan keseharian pemenuhan kebutuhan keluarga/masyarakat negara. Bisa dibayangkan apabila lebih dari setengah jumlah penduduk Indonesia memiliki kesadaran sebagai bangsa, dan kesadaran untuk menghentikan seksisme, pastilah Indonesia bukan hanya dapat menjadi negeri mandiri (mengatur, mengekplorasi, mengekploitasi kekayaan alam) secara positif bagi kelangsungan kehidupan ke depan.
Bagaimana caranya membuat feminisme menjadi ideologi yang menjadi pada aktifis perempuan/laki-laki. Dokrinasi yang terus menerus secara positif dengan memberikan teladan (contoh) para aktifis perempuan yang berbuat dan berprilaku tidak patriarkis, memberi contoh-contoh konkrit pilah-pilahan tindakan yang mendukung seksisme dan yang menolak seksisme. Mengapa seksisme perlu dihapuskan. Pada akhirnya semua perempuan dan aktifis menjadi bangga sebagai feminis, karena dengan ideologi feminisme kelangsungan kehidupan manusia ke depan lebih baik (tanpa kekerasan, tanpa penindasan, tanpa kelas, tanpa hirarki yang menindas).
Dengan sisterhood action persaudaraan perempuan tanpa batas yang lahir dari kesadaran ideologis feminisme maka perempuan Indonesia (yang lebih dari seratus juta) bukan tidak mungkin bisa mengubah kondisi sosial yang ada.
Sebagai penggemar sejarah, saya tertarik sekali ikut dalam temu nasional untuk melihat, menyerap dan merekam pertemuan perempuan ini.
Sisterhood is real, you just need to proove it.
Feminisme<<<“feminisme adalah gerakan untuk mengakhiri seksisme, seksis eksploitasi, dan penindasan” atau feminism defined as a movement to end sexist oppression enable men and women, girls and boys to participate equally in revolutionary struggle. Feminisme dalam konteks ini adalah feminisme yang terimplementasi melawan seksime dan secara simultan melawan rasisme, klasisme yang ada (yang antara lain didorong oleh sistem kapitalisme).
Seksisme>>>>ideologi yang nilainya membentuk seksual rangking dan segregasi seksual perempuan lebih rendah dari laki-laki dan mengejawantah dalam kehidupan sehari-hari dalam bentuk stereotipe, labeling, standar ganda dan diskriminasi seksual
Sisterhood<<<solidaritas politik sesama perempuan untuk mengakhiri seksisme dalam segala bentuknya
Pendanaan>>> kontribusi aktifis perempuan, kontribusi funding agency
Komitmen dan Kontinuitas<<<< Komitmen bekerja dalam gerakan perempuan untuk menghentikan seksisme dan terus mensupport gerakan perempuan meski tak lagi bekerja dalam gerakan perempuan
Komitmen>>> tetap teguh dan tegas melaksanakan pilihan ideologis secara terus menerus tanpa henti, di mana saja, kapan saja
INDONESIA’S WOMEN LOCAL CULTURE
PRESERVE NATIONAL IDENTITY
Umi Lasmina, INDONESIAN WOMEN’S COALITION FOR JUSTICE AND DEMOCRACY
Indonesia is well known country for its cultural diversity. It is a richness of The Nation. It richness comes from people’s cultures of many tribes of indigenous people and ethnic groups, which inhabitant thousands islands of Indonesia. Those differences had been acknowledge by State slogan Bhineka Tunggal Ika (Diversity in Unity). As number four of populate nation in the world with more than 230 millions people lives in an archipelago of more than 18.000 islands surrounded by seas, bay and many mountains. Its people lives and practicing 5 religions and believers, use more than 250 languages, and have lots and different traditions of different cultures. With women more than half of its population, women assemble Indonesia.
Other than its quantity, women have works silently without any pretentious to shock other power, they preserving culture. Local culture. What I mean of culture in this paper is that manifestation of history of nation/tribe which mirroring in accepting their values, a spectator and values which inline to lives for ideal and spiritual, free from contradiction from time to time. In women life context, I use women as social group Robert K.Merton,”people who have a sense of solidarity by virtue of sharing common values and who have acquired an attendant sense of moral obligation to fulfill role expectation”. In Indonesian women as well men are part of ethnic groups. Its ethnic groups are background for women to preserved and practiced traditional values.
Long before Indonesia Independence Day 1945, the colonial Dutch government acknowledged its pluralism by the colonial legal system that created legal pluralism and operated through racial segregation. Article 75 of the Regerings Reglement 1855 (the de facto Colonial Constitution) divided the population of the Netherlands East Indies into Europeans and Inlanders or non Christians native that include indigenous Indonesians as well as Chinese, Arabs and Indians. This category later was confirmed in article 163 and 131 Indische Staatsregeling of 1925 which defined three racial groups : a. Europeans including the Japanese as honorary Europeans, b. Foreign Orientals : Chinese, Indians and Arabs and Inlanders (natives). Along with modern legal system of colonial, adat (ethnic groups law) existed and operated in territorial basis and kinship in many part of colonial state. And modern term and traditional fact of pluralism continued to exist in after Independence Day, and even adopted one of tradition into State principle.
Indonesia Philosophy is root from the tradition and principle of its native. Its adopted State Ideology, Pancasila: 1. Ketuhanan Yang Maha Esa(Believe in God), 2. Kemanusiaan Yang Adil dan Beradab (Humanitarian, Justice and Civilized), 3. Persatuan Indonesia United of Indonesia:Nationalism, Kerakyatan yang Dipimpin Oleh Hikmat Kebijaksaan dalam Permasyawaratan Perwakilan 4. (Democracy of People Representation) and, 5.Keadilan Sosial Bagi Seluruh Rakyat Indonesia (Socialism). And principle of Indonesia pluralism of Bhineka Tunggal Ika is in Indonesia constitution UUD 1945, Article 26A. Those values which adopted as highest level in legal system, people of Indonesia has already practiced its valued long since their great-great grandmother. It was gotong royong (communal duties). Gotong royong not only implemented values system it is too, depicted of pluralism. In gotong royong, people in community despite their different background will gather and working together in create something for community. Even Soekarno proposed for alternative choices that Pancasila might compressed to be one philosophy, a Gotong royong, as he speech in 1945 in front of Committee to Investigate Preparations for Indonesia Independence. For radical thought of Indonesia pluralism and political context, Soekarno with DPRGR (Dewan Perwakilan Gotong Royong/ Gotong Royong Parliament) proposed a merging or cooperate between ideologies, a concept of Nasakom (Nasional Agama Komunis) or Nationalism, Religious and Communism. Anyhow, those were merely several examples of valued adoption into state and legal concept in Old Order (1945-1965), there will be some other adoption of gotong royong as regulation or government policy in New Order (1966-1988) as well as in Reformation Era (1999-now). The New Order Governmnet formed of women’s local organization through lowest level of bureaucracy (Village to Provinces and Central Government) in PKK (Pembinaan Kesejahteraan Keluarga)/ Family Welfare Guidance which adopted gotong royong as one of ten program for PKK with a Internal Ministry Decree No.28/1984. Though it look like, a very decent and good policy in increasing women participation to their community as very well written in the text of it Decree. It was clearly that the structure of bureaucracy of wife of the bureaucrats will have positions, has point out that it is a centrally and imposed policy to one organization for women in community. Though PKK adopted pluralism (women from different ethnic groups might joined) in its regular activities, with state only support one organization in community it shows that the stated denied other organization legally. For that matter mostly women in community did not organize themselves as organization. They chose to create guyub, through arisan, or pengajian. These are save activities, non politics, not modern organization (no leader, no structure).
Somehow, any regulation or law produced by state in its concept of implementing pluralism which its also shows in Criminal Code or Marriage Law still unfair for women. And if a wife filed for divorce (especially Moslem), is harder than if it is a husband who filed for divorce. Woman mixed marriage to alien still find difficulty to have her rights upon her children or its nationality. Though Indonesia has already signature and ratify CEDAW (Convention on Elimination against all form of Discrimination) and have its Law No. 4 /1984 to ensure its obligation by its state, women still find it hard to fulfill their rights as a marriage woman. Those were few examples in which the legal system and state principle still do not fully recognized that women’s culture and women’s rights as part of regulation and to be forced as well to be protected.
This paper will describe how women too practiced its values, in general term act for solidarity between women gotong royong and tolong menolong (mutual help). These practiced has been and still done by ethnic groups in many areas in Indonesia, and become informal institutions. These institutions have important implications in field of economics as refereeing to a technique of teamwork, but in neither case is it possible to distinguish between individual obligation and group interest (guyub). And with this aura of global culture, could women still could preserve this institution, or how do they manage to react on what is coming into their life? And how does the role of the state within this context, is it actively involve to maintain or ignore?
Beyond Differences Women’s Culture and Global Culture
Woman work is daily work, it part of their live as women, as mother, sister and human being. In maintaining culture, their activities are part of daily basis in preserving their family, their environment and their future generation. These were said and unsaid by women, but we could look right through their activities as it were something with meaning, a great meaning of as part Indonesian women identity and as Nation. Throughout women activities we could almost always seen solidarity as part of their action.
Indonesian women have different culture for each tribe, island and class background. And in its differences there are almost always have similarity. Within this paper I would like to describe a bit about the differences and similarity between women from random big island in Indonesia that could be in Sumatera, Java, Kalimantan, Sulawesi, Nusatenggara, Papua or Bali. Due to limited funding, and time for research, I will only make example from what I find through literature and my personal observation.
The daily activities of women cultures are shown in differences activities in related wedding processes, labor, mourning commemoration of a deceased person, crops production process, financial owner and decision making within family. The similarities are their value for religious fervor, position in traditional board (Lembaga Adat), solidarity and mutual help/assistance or gotong royong, respect with each other, and sharing method of healing for ill.
Gotong royong is usually shown in marriage ceremony, labor (gave birth), death commemoration, beginning cultivating, harvest, or if neighbor of colleague friend hospitalize and traditional ritual in related to religious or ongoing activities as arisan; a social gathering whose member contribute and like to an aggregate some money. Money is not the aim, but communality in essence is act of sisterhood/brotherhood or silaturahmi (good with each other).
Solidarity and respect are shown in almost activities of women. Most women who have to leave the house for work, she could ask her neighbor to look after her children. Respect each other as women regardless their differences of religious, ideology, work status, or even class as shown in women organization. These women’s cultures are still persisted today, while the world has come to global culture. How women still maintain this culture, with this speedy of invasion of global culture, especially by television? Is it still existed as it was, or changed or modified?
Though as claimed by most of feminists that women’s shared same experiences as oppressed, their differences too, could never be deny. Differences are reality between women in the world, as well in Indonesia. It interconnected with global-local condition of social, politics and cultural practices. Among the differences, social class or economic condition is the most apparent. Somehow in Indonesia, though differences in social economic condition might bring impact to women view, attitude, and characteristic individually or collectively, its difference almost never occurred if related certain condition of cultural and tradition. These cultural and tradition are in related with life, death and celebration of togetherness as society. These cultural practices of tradition and custom refer as local culture.
In the meantime, while certain local culture existed, global culture has too been come in speedy with or without invitation. The global culture referred here with global culture product and global cultural process that might influence women lifestyle, and how its lifestyle has an impact in local culture. Global cultural as product of what has been connected with cultural manufacture (by capitalist) by and through its cultural product (food-beverage-clothes, information-technology-television) especially from Western, in which might construct-deconstruct women local culture. Global cultural process of how its process intermingled with social, politics, economic circumstances in national and local level, and how women adapt to it. How those global cultures re-shape a women’s cultural identity. Women’s cultural identity, though Hannerz did not specific mention on women, I agree framework of cultural process which as ‘form of life “…in that involves everyday practicalities of production and reproduction, activities going on work places, domestic settings, neighborhoods and some variety of other places. And its cultural process is that from doing the same things over and over again, and seeing and hearing other doing the same things over and over again”.
And for many cultural studies theory identity concept almost always have related with sense of community or territorial, but due to lack of women focus on that studies, I only come with assumption on what occurred on and on in many part of Indonesia. Agree with John Tomlinson, on identity as treasure, what has been practiced by women as collective treasure of local community. Community of women, though related with territorial, it is shift from place of stay to place of works. Sometimes for Arisan, it is practiced between women’s friends.
Women’s collective identity mostly related with territorial (place of birth, raised, stay/living and family), and in family. Women have their kampung halaman (homeland), where they still have their parents, sister or brothers live in. And when it place has been replace to works place, women could created the replacement as a new women’s activities of tolong menolong. Its replacement might be office, or circle of women’s friends. Women might set up arisan or a basket of donation for solidarity action.
Whether its gender role or not, women who have a colleague friend who has been hospitalized or in labor, women mostly took initiative for acting in charge to gain amount of money to buy a present or donation to their colleague (illness or in labor). I could not point out those women’s action as sisterhood, for sisterhood is political solidarity against sexism. Usually in solidarity action men involve too, especially in case of office colleague. Men and women donated, the donation will manage by woman, its act of charity. And it has been practiced over and over the years until now, in many offices and places in Indonesia.
As for arisan and gotong royong, mutual action has been planned in certain community or women in group. Gotong royong or mutual help mostly show collective activity of creating something, be it’s action to build a mosque, a bridge, or cleansing the environment, or a set of food and beverage for celebration , commemorating deceased person. The later two are exclusively involve women activities.
From time to time gotong royong between women neighbors of community in all over Indonesia (especially in rural village) still persisted, it does not change the value of treasuring equal action for each other goodness. I will elaborate these with samples which I took from my experiences, observation, and literature. And how it actions are part of Indonesia identity.
Women, Culture and Global Culture
Information technology: television, hand phone, and internet come and accepted by many women throughout Indonesia, but it doesn’t eroded that women still practicing its value as Indonesian women, regardless their background of ethnic groups or political ideology. It is the actualization respect of social relation among women. Women, regardless their background of ethnic, somehow could mingle with other women from different ethnic with arisan. Its capital are trust. For women with different ideology practicing gotong royong might transcendent to sisterhood in term of solidarity against sexism in politics.
For the later one, I will brought sample from two women organizations: Koalisi Perempuan Indonesia untuk Keadilan dan Demokrasi (Indonesia Women’s Coalition for justice and democracy) and Kaukus Perempuan Politik Indonesia (Indonesia Women’s Political Caucus). As I mentioned they are still practicing gotong royong, tolong menolong and arisan. Those activities are institutionalized as part of social relation among women with or without involving financial matter. As for arisan, global culture and mobilization of people from place to place has been influence to modify its model of contribution. I will give some example of those actions and how it existed identity in time of global culture.
From time to time Indonesia social-cultural activities have tied relation with religious activities. Those collective actions of gotong royong, tolong menolong and arisan are mostly related with traditional-spiritual and religious activities. Gotong royong are undoubtly accepted as Indonesian people characteristic whether it is practice by male or female. Gotong royong never exclusively practice by male or female. It works together. Occasionally women have major contribution in gotong royong activities as in wedding, or labor (to cook and preparing logistic), while male mostly have major contribution in building public facilities. Those differentiated of labor almost never created distinction between male and female to participate in traditional community activities. It is division merely functional. Somehow in other activities in related to decision making for its community women participation still small. It is due to individual participation to represent each family, where male are headed household.
In eastern Java, Malang, women of Candirenggo, Singosari district have local custom arisan and mutual assistance. Arisan is a monthly or biweekly activity of many women and men. Women activities in pengajian (reading Qur’an) will include arisan. It is a weekly arisan, its members more than 40 women. Information method on when and place to be held in each week, is decided on the day of arisan. In this village too, commemoration on decease person, will held pengajian where members of community will gather and pray together. Beside praying most women in community will prepared food and beverage for mourning family.
In Sumatera, Java, and Nusatenggara, and many areas in Indonesia, when there is a family going have a wedding celebration, a local tradition is that women in neighbor are going to be participated for preparing food and beverages. It is practiced in Aceh, Java and too Jakarta. For women in Bieren, Aceh, it is a deviation if one family did not asked their neighbor to participate in preparing food and beverage for wedding celebration (if they order catering). In Java, ceremony took many step, one step is set up the committee whom should appoint people from the village in charge of different jobs such as: protocol, food and beverage, art performance of the gamelan music group and the dance, setting up the reception hall complete with decoration. The appointment: master of ceremony; some elder distinguish women to do the siraman (holy bathing) ; who should be witnesses for IJAB; who should deliver the welcome speech during reception; who should be responsible for transportation, communication and security matters etc. The committee and appointee mostly work for voluntarily basis. This is the manifestation of the spirit of Gotong Royong.
My family has been held ceremony four times in our house. It was because my parents have daughters, and usually wedding ceremony took place in a bride house, or a bride family is a host. Though I live in Jakarta, I see that my neighbor come and help with preparing celebration. There are young women/men preparing for decoration, and women-mothers preparing for food and beverage. It was all doing voluntarily. Usually after wedding ceremony over, women who came and help the preparation got a present from my family. It was all do the other way around, when my neighbor have wedding ceremony, my mother come and join to help them. My surround neigborhood are mixed ethnic background. Most of the head of the family, the father are civil servant who came to Jakarta migrate from their homeland in outside Jakarta. And in my community, if there is invitation to come to wedding party, women usually come together to wedding event. I often saw, women of native Jakarta (ethnic Betawi) who will come to wedding party are grouping and took a small bus to the wedding.
Now with the economic crisis, women have to face rapid change of local culture, which influenced by global culture. Within this context of global culture is the change through and by media. And television is the media which has been most influenced for women. Though there is not yet research to measure this influence to women, the percentage of women to watch television program is higher than the other gender.
Nowdays gotong royong interpretation is shifted from just activities, to become one component for democracy, a people’s participation. Somehow in this context participation merely for male, because its only put in local politics (local institution), not relation between family in the community. As for women, in many village or kelurahan, with its
In Desa Soka, Kecamatan Baturiti, District Tabanan, Bali, Moslem and Hindu hand in hand in many activities gotong royong in wedding ceremonial, celebration and building holy place and public facilities. Moslem women cook their food in celebration and interactive involved with Hindu-Balinese.
Gotong royong has many different words as in Bangka Belitung is Sepintu Sedulang, for explain activities of harvest, wedding, and deceased commemoration. In Bali, gotong royong are known with name nguopin which are activities in rice field (cultivation and harvest), activities surround home and family (fixed house, yards, garden, well digger) and in ritual ceremony of decease person, wedding ceremony, and girl’s tradition of cutting teeth. Gotong royong between individu usually base on mutual undertanding that each favor will be pay back with work. In Sipirok North Sumatera, District South Tapanuli, there are women gotong royong to cultivate rice field, which belong to other woman. Other than practicing gotong royong for cultivation, women too has created saving contribution which its member of the group will use sometime when in need Banua Sibohou Simaewali, Kec Bawolato, District.Nias, North Sumatera cultivating gotong royong. Its crops as subsistence system, for themselves and sold.
Arisan is now practicing in different place, different mode. It is now practice by women and men as well. Arisan is more popular for women from lower to upper class. With global culture of consumerism, arisan has been modified. Its modification mostly related with economic condition. For upper class women, its contribution not only money, change with dollar or diamond. For lower class women its contribution might be still some money or other goods in which needed for household. In Gunung Rejo village, District Situbondo, East Java, there are arisan for building house. It was where member of arisan by contributing equipment, tools, cement, wood and everything in circulating period.
In context of global culture which brought media, especially television has been doing great deal in heightening consumerism with advertising product. Women share their interest in certain product which advertised. This new culture of television has not change much of local culture. Women in Java, Sumatera, or other places in Indonesia might like Mac Donald, and like Revlon, but it doesn’t affect much of relation between women in community. Even there are popular television comedy series of Bajaj Bajuri (National Station of Trans Tv) is shown that arisan is to part of women community, and motion picture Arisan (show its activity upper class women. This motion picture Arisan, were depiction of real activities of many women in upper class where dollar is a contribution to each member. What I have seen from local activities of arisan from upper to lower class women is not only different of amount contribution, but communication media which are different. In village women get information about place, time of arisan directly from person who will be host of the event, and in urban/city information spreading via handhpone, email, and direct from the person at the event.
Indonesia National Identity is one with National Philosophy. National philosophy which then Pancasila with its five principles is chosen foundation for Indonesia Nation State, now in question and doubt. It was due to global culture and hegemony of capitalism which bring with them liberal individualism. Somehow its individualism is not yet into account as threat. Indonesia Legislative Assembly already amendment it Constitution, and adopted Human Rights as articles. Human Rights within Indonesia context are always related with spirituality and God, as it stated in Constitution and in Human Rights Law No. 39/1999. Long before its Law passed, gotong royong and tolong as collective identity of already well accepted and practiced by Indonesia people. The founder of Indonesia’s state then adopted as one of its principle of state Ideology in Pancasila. Its continuity to adopt its value have shown in many regulations or policy by government. But than again before the government take over to emulate in state policy, there were organization whom took its identity, such as DPRGR (Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat Gotong Royong) People Representative Assembly Gotong Royong, mass organization MKGR (Musyawarah Keluarga Gotong Royong) later becama party, Kabinet Gotong Royong (Cabinet Gotong Royong, president Megawati2001-2004), and by the time New Order regime has its power to
Individualism is suppressed with spirituality and religious through and by social and cultural activities of community. Because many women engage in daily cultural and social activities in community, unconsciously Indonesia as Nation state is in advantage, identity of Indonesia cultural is preserved.
Koalisi Perempuan Indonesia untuk Keadilan Demokrasi
Jl. Siaga I No.2B RT/RW.003/05 Pejaten Barat, Pasar Minggu Jakarta Selatan 12510Tel./Fax.: 62-21-7985110, 9100076, 791834444.
 al Sharqawi, Effat Filsafat Kebudayaan Islam, terj. A.Rofi Usmani Badung Pustaka (1986)
 Merton., Robert.K., Social Theory and Social Structure., revised edition.New York: Free Press., 1964.,p.299.
 Term of ethnic group/golongan within this paper use Koentjaraningrat and Mely G.Tan, as to make differentiated with ‘grouping’, but more to classify ethnic as social category.
 Hooker. M.B., Adat Law in Modern Indonesia., Jakarta: Oxford University Press,1978.,p.71.
 Undang-undang Dasar 1945, Second Amandement.
 Soekarno., “Lahirnya Pantjasila”., dalam Kepada Bangsaku Karya2 Bung Karno 1926-1930-1933,1941,1945,1947 dan 1957, Jakarta: BP Prapantja.,p.405.
 Soekarno proposed its concept in the heighten competition of politics of Indonesia where political parties trying to spread out its power in Government against Army. (J.Elise Rocamora., Nasionalisme Mencari Ideology bangkit dan Runtuhnya PNI 1946-1965.,Jakarta:PT Temprint., 1991., p.384-385)
 . In Reformation Era Internal Ministry launch Peraturan Menteri Dalam Negeri Nomor 42 Tahun 2005 tentang Pedoman Penyelenggaraan Bulan Bhakti Gotong Royong Masyarakat Tahun 2006
 In Marriage Law. 1974., women still considered to have live in stereotype of domestic, and not provider within the family.
 Koentjaranigrat., Some Social-anthropological Observation on Gotong Royong Practices in Two Villages of Central Java., Ithaca.1961
 The concept Global culture are varied from many theories, my interpretation of it mostly I adopt from U.Hannerz., Scenarios for peripheral cultures., in Culture, Globalization and the World System, edited by., A.D King., State University New York, 1991.and in context of identity, I like to use my interpretation from Douglas Kellner (The Frankfurt School and British Cultural Studies: The Missed Articulation).
 Tomlinson, John., “Globalization and Cultural Identity”., TGT2eC23.,2003., p.269
 Case study of Tooting, London where Asian lives try to reconceptualization of local culture in global scale, by using individualistic methodology. The concept of locality merely studies where people from different places move and settle in new territorial. M.Albrow.,”Travelling beyond local Culture”., Living in Global City: globalization as local process., edited by.J.Eade, Routledge, 1997.
 Hooks, Bell., Feminist Theory from margin to center.,Boston: South End Press., 1984., p.43-65
 In many parts of Indonesia, local politics are public place and belong to men, while women place are in home (domestic). Traditionally marriage, deceased, labor and cultivating are non- public activities (but family and neigbor), that is why women could be part of it. This segregation still exist.
 http://http://www.joglosemar.co.id/wedding/html%20%20access May, 10, 2006
 Kamardi., makalah Kelembagaan Adat Masyarakat Desa di Lombok Bagian Utara., sebuah tahapan dalam berotonomi., http://www.fppm.org/ accessed May, 14, 2006
 Kompas, Selasa, January, 11, 2005
 Kompas, Jumat, 28 October 2005
WOMEN ON STATE DISCOURSE, NEVER HEARD, NEVER PUBLISHED
Indonesian print media and electronic media has always been a tool for political participation of society. Its freedom of speech is part of democratization. Nevertheless, if talking about tae and plan, still always full with politics and mainstream opinion with many of them using theory of state from the grand narratives/liberal theory.
People tend to not knowing what women think considering state politics. Cause the media too taken for granted of all happened in reality. Including women’s live as citizen. It occurred in the way they presented through media, print and electronic media. Nevertheless women’s view of state is already recognized by some of Indonesian feminist. But again they seem do not have space to speak about it, neither in print/electronic media, nor in political sphere. The efforts for being brought by feminist activist and academic seem unchanged the male-stream atmosphere on concept of state, including basic rights of citizen. The citizens have to be in certain condition to be fully practicing their rights as citizen in term of state politics. All citizens have to be in physical independence, economic independence and impartiality.
These terms of independence are constructed with male standards. First physical independence is almost could not be embrace by women, cause state and patriarchy culture could not recognized violence against women as reality in state and politics, and must be demolishing. Violence against women has always been threat for physical independence of women. Economic independence is merely as wage-earning, but in reality of household and relationship between men and women, within marriage, family and community as whole; father, brother and husband mainly chosen as head of all household. Thus relationship is power relation. These situations are persists all over the world. Women could not hold fully citizenship in term of this independency. Though there are women who could manage to be on top of the political position in state, but in reality prejudice and doubts still persist within society as well as citizens; women and men. Women considered incomplete to polity task. Sometimes this result in realm make women systematically denied their rights to become fully citizen and practicing their rights. But again many women, individual and women’s organizations has done and still great effort to breaking these hindrances. In context of Indonesia, the efforts greatly create through women’s Non Governmental Organizations (women’s NGO’s).
Those three major independence of citizen, which will be questioned by women’s movement in post Suharto’s era. The women’s movement using three major way of looking within praxis, and bringing consciousness raising . Three ways of action by redefining through law regulation, affirmative issues of women’s within social context, and affirmative action through mainstream political sphere.
Many of social activities that being conduct through civil society organization, especially women’s organization were/are to reconsidered social contract for women as citizen. They start upsurge the questions of rights of women as citizen. Do women have rights to have their own name after marriage, do women have rights to bear children after divorce, do women have to get husband’s permission to submit loan, do women independently could go for election; become candidate, do women could get a higher career and go abroad for duty without husband/father permission, to state acknowledge women as part of citizen to defend their country with the way they chose non gender’s way. Those questions are part of women’s power to redefined social contracts. Like what already been stated by Carole Pateman,”…that the very theorytical structure of modern system of power ignore female sexual difference by absorbs it into an abstract paradigm of the individual which is understand a male and universal”.
In Indonesia, women denial to participation in politics as part of citizen rights is acute. More often than not, women become fear, and lack of self esteem were/are to actively involve in state politics. The New Order government has managed to exploited stereotype of women in advantage of greater space for masculinity/militaristic control of all individuals. The exploitation is implemented in suppressed and control of women in politic/public and domestic. Women could never enjoy to able to express their opinion, not even proud of. The New Order government maintain stereotype by introduced women’s dignity and valued after their task as mother. Women must be good and be angel. Double standard is only for women. New order’s fall in 1998 yet still lingering this condition.
Indonesia, like many other countries where the wind of change was in the way, has to face an era of transition. It is road for democracy. In May, 1998, Suharto’s regime fell. This is the beginning of realization of hope, of what has been started long ago by civil society of NGO’s, men and women. The image of an ending fear and oppression by military regime and start for civil government is on the way. Everyone is in hope to find a better future, women and men, older, young and any different background of human individual/collectives.
Months before Suharto’s fell, different types of women’s organization were full to work together. Women’s organization together was too drew women who were not activists. They even held the historical demonstration in Circle of Hotel Indonesia. The called themselves Suara Ibu Peduli (Voice of Concerned Mothers). They strategy to choose to use stereotype of women as mother related to avoid suspicious from security apparatus. This was necessary and effective tactic for struggle within context of military regime and mend to attract public sympathy.
As I stated above, within Suharto’s Regime, the government has performed many acts of violence to citizens and many people are abducted. Suara Ibu Peduli effort was to cover up politics actions as moral actions, turn way from suspicious of military regime. Though many of participants aware that demonstration was political actions. And, this action was seeing as illegal and demonstrators is arrest for civil disobedient . Three women force and arrest by police. Police interrogated them for almost 24 hours. One woman, Karlina Leksono Supelli was known as first woman astronomer in Indonesia. The action itself already being informed to public before took stance, national and international through press conference a day before. Media were prepared to capture the action. The journalists already in position near the location hours before, demonstration began. And coverage media on the actions was huge. The story and photo when they were grab by police were in Newsweek and other international media. The media attention focused on how women from upper and middle class took action. Since then many women from middle class and upper class start joining women’s movement. If not directly as part action of civil awareness, they support financially. They were a variety of women such as artists, entrepreneurs, professionals and academic.
After that action, Indonesia’s politics situation was in rapidly changing flow to one another. They become news in media. Though media still not free informed fully to public on what has happened or what has been said by political figure. They have to be careful not to create a provocative message, because they might be accused to bring untrue story. One could be accused as being subversive without being proof in court, as it happened to Tempo magazine.
That is why women’s organizations spoke in press conference the same time as with other political figure were sometimes being cut by the media. The occasion is when Indonesian Women’s Coalition for Justice and Democracy read their statement at the same time in the same place with student action in Parliament Building. They spoke loud, but the voice could not be heard by television viewer, not because it was crowded, but it was because danger. Women’s Coalition for Justice and Democracy was too formed by the same women who formed Suara Ibu Peduli, but this new formed of organization will be more actively speak on national politics. Suara Ibu Peduli chosen to speak in a way of domestic women stereotype using as tool to encourage women. Not directly speak with male-stream level of politics but a women’s way. These are one road for redefined contract social.
Just days before Suharto ousted from the reign, women’s action within and out organization were submerge and in the heat of fire, also students movement. After SIP member being arrest, women struggle for justice follow and more massive. Women continue to support SIP with always be on court. And the mass demonstrations were everywhere, they inspired (though no one admitted) by SIP to held demonstration outside the courts and campuses.
Following accident occurred after SIP’s member arrest. Students who attended students gathering inside University of Trisakti shot by police. And city continued to state in turmoil. Indonesian tragedy of 13-16 May, 1998, where riots, burning, killing and raped were carry out. Fear control situation. Police do nothing to help citizens. The tragedy casualties was beyond compare. Human burn to a crisps, women were rape a massacre, building destroyed. The tragedy then, became a turning point to evaluating a social contract between women as citizen and state as controller. In Jakarta, Solo, Palembang, Lampung Surabaya and Medan hundreds of family lost their relatives, property, and many of them live in catastrophe causing trauma that will extremely difficult to cure.
One of prominent women’s politic (will become) organization, Women’s Coalition for Justice and Democracy was become first whose outspokenly demand Suharto’s to step down. At May 19, 1998 they considered as women’s movement. Not yet organizing and structure as today. The name of Women’s Coalition for Justice and Democracy was chosen after a discussed and debate within women’s movement. After long night of seeking support from women throughout Indonesia, the statement to be read in People Representative Assemly (DPR/MPR), finished. And finally after a night sleep, in the morning of 20 Mei women who joined with Indonesian’s women coalition went to People Representative Assemly (DPR/MPR), where thousands of students already there.
Though they were many Indonesian become victims, majority of women’s who being raped were from Chinese origin. They became vulnerable target, to be destroyed by certain military figure of men. At the time of riots and rape, police were never there to stop. If they were there, they do nothing to stop.
The human tragedy was brought again every element is society to questioning state responsibility. This time, I called, the citizen’s right to reconsider social contract. Women become more aware and more actively to act against state firmness to see violence against women. At this time media attention to brought to issue of May tragedy, where rape occurred. But again insensitivity of the media mostly only brought confusion to readers. The media wanted to exploit the victims. They convincing if there was no victim stand up to speak there was no rape occurred. What a male point of view.
Redefined Social Contract
Post May Tragedy become a turning point for women to really redefined Social (sexual) Contract. First trying to find the answer of the questions above in state affair. It began when women’s movement push the government to formed an institution support by state to protect women from any violence. It was then happened, the Habibie government formed a National Commission on Violence against Women (Women’s Commission). This institution is independently work and the decision making is make after the presidium of consist members agree upon certain disposition or proposal. They have support from state, from The Secretary of State Department. Yes, they should have, and actually more women’s organization or civil society organization deserve to have too. It suppose to be a part of State contribution of their responsibility in taking care of their people.
National Women’s Commisssion on Violence Against Women then become one of the breakthroughs the glass ceiling of silence state. Almost all the years of living in free country of Indonesia, women never been seriously acknowledge. Women is voiceless. If there is sound, it always been the voice of what State want from women but never in return. The state create Dharma Wanita, Persatuan Istri Tentara and PKK, all for women in relation with wife of civil servants, the wife of army and housewife.
Afterall, the state have already ratified the Convention on the Elimination of all forms of Discrimination Against Women in 1984 . But though, in almost all that time the regulation seem has do nothing to help women. It is like discrimination is society become non discrimination in law. Law is a real moment in social connection of these mirror image inversion as truth. And most of all, if we could look back history, so long that men dominate effectively enough in society without the support of positive law nothing constitutional can be done about it. Seem like the liberal way of feminist struggle to gain women’s liberation become a wrong way of doing, especially in Indonesia, but of course all the work worth of trying.
Back to Women’s Commission, where the organization effort is trying to be more involved in national as well local level, where violence against women persevere. They find out solution or something to overcome in local level, and brought it to higher level to get more facilitate and support. This effort could be seeing as to empower state to be more effective and more aware of citizen needs (women). Central government is main target as resource support for women’s empowerment. This is too, could create re-function of institution in the government. One of the successful of work for Women’s Commission was brought issue of violence against women as citizen issues. This could bring discourse of women’s view of state rather different from what already exist.
This is too, could seen in context of decentralization system or regional autonomy. Within range of violence against women, women could not independently workout to be physical independence without state guaranty and acknowledge. Women’s member of parliament still has to be in situation where harrasshment is taken place. A woman activist and member of parliament said that, if she talked in forum, many of male member sometimes making a joke of her or saying thing to contempt her. At this point state should recognize that, what has happened within the noble institution, there are violation of citizen’s rights.
Women Commission could independently voluntarily advice government institution without being threat. But again, government institution too could choose take or leave the advice- voluntarily. As historically patriarch, this situation in Indonesia could seen as in some level already been embrace with power as citizen. Though still, women still surrounded by not independence situation.
Other women’s NGOs too continue to works on questions. The organizations sometimes work together to discuss and talk about certain issues. Especially where regulation to protect women is none. This is the law as tool they choose. Until today, the parliament still in conduct to legalized a regulation on Domestic Violence Law .
Those phenomena of women’s struggle is could be a conviction that women, no matter what they being oppressed they still have their power inside. Only the space and room to exercise that power is just not yet been discovered. And all the effort through the organizations could be seen as complimentary action through legal and mainstream politics sphere. There are three main part of state structure that always been static, seem that women could not do anything about it. There are; Parliamentary/Legislative, Judiciary and Executive. As we all know that around the world, the three main structure of state organizer is belong to men, or at least male stream. It is important point for women today to recognize this, and make some more notice about it. Though as I said above, that the spirit as citizen of many women is less, they are live in denial their right as citizen; to participate active as citizen. Again many women’s organization are expectedly to be more active to influence those three organizers. Especially after the Central Government has decided to have decentralization system in 2000. The autonomy issues itself is well known by government in all province, but again it is a male issue. Not many local/province government aware of what the impact might be on women.@Umi Lasminah
VIOLENCE REPRODUCTION: So Often, it Become Common
A friend of mine could not stand to see more scene of rape violence act in stage, theatre she walks out of the building. It was already play for only 20 minutes, which over all is two hours play. It was happened in February last year in Jakarta Graha Bakti Budaya. “Violence scene is vulgar, like you read rape news in crime newspaper”, she said afterward, and mentions one of well known usual newspaper in town for criminal news. The 15000 rupiahs for ticket was meaningless. She could not enjoy the show, not even to appreciate performance. It was one of illustration I dare to mention, I do not mind to criticized the show, which I did not even watched, but to prod more on how violence, in action and behavior become widespread and common, frantically almost accepted. But in speak of violence in theater play, one of the show “Perempuan di Titik Nol” (women at zero point) in Jakarta has been courageously diminished violence reproduction, instead replaced it with dance. Violence Reproduction by Media Above story was to illustrate on how reproduction of violence on stage is rejected by audience. Though it was one person, I believe there are many of audiences who refused to enjoy violence as entertain. And how much more person who dare to reject and walk out against reproduction of violence, quantity is not easy to congregate. I use term of reproduction to replace forms of impostor action taken from reality. Art is one of media of which often work in reproduction, in film, paints, and in play performance. Violence is masculine reproduction. Media world, as in arts and press is still dominated and managed by masculine power, in effect, the reproduction too gave deliver their value, violence. Though masculine is merely stereotype of male, but not exclusively own by, in reality in strengthen its position to always in tied with male (sexual) power. We might judge from television program which main theme is “violence”, sports with violence, the strongest the winner. From the World Wrestling Federation in RCTI-TPI, boxing in SCTV and Indosiar, kick boxing and other one o one fighting exhibition. Other than that, television has its own non-sport program with violence contents is so grouse make your stomach hurts. Though there are 9 boxers death in 14 years row (Media Indonesia, 6 February 2003), television violence program not stopped there. Over all television programs, there are 18 programs of 30 minutes to an hour news and special program which major content is violence. Most of them broadcast in cover of criminal stories. Slowly then, the content of media isn’t as important as the type of person being targeted by the ads. “The influence of advertising on magazines reached a point where editors began selecting articles not only on the basis of their expected interest for readers but for their influence on advertisements. Serious articles were not always the best support for ads. An article that put the reader in an analytical frame of mind did not encourage the reader to take seriously an ad that depended on fantasy or promoted a trivial product. An article on genuine social suffering might interrupt the “buying” mood on which most ads for luxuries depend. The next step, seen often in mid-twentieth century magazines, was commissioning articles solely to attract readers who were good prospects to buy products advertised in the magazine. After that came the magazine phenomenon of the 1970s — creating magazines for an identifiable special audience and selling them to particular advertisers.” — ( Ben Bagdikian, Media Monopoly chapter 6) Ben H. Bagdikian, The Media Monopoly, Sixth Edition, (Beacon Press, 2000), p.138.
Brief History, Road of Indonesia Women Movement
The road of Indonesian Women Movement
Before Independence Day: – 1945
Women’s movement joint with male counterpart with general organization to fight for independence—the National Movement period. This was a diplomacy struggle.
Inspired by Kartini’s (see Letter of Javanese Princess, Clifford Geertz)letter youth within youth organization bring out nationalism to the movement.
Those women’s organization such as Putri Mardika 1914 in Jakarta, Women’s wing of Boedi Oetomo 1920 in Yogyakarta, Siti Fatimah women’s wing of Sarekat Islam in 1918. Aisyiah 1912, women’s wing of Muhamadiyah and Poetri Indonesia,
Among those organization they become actively involved in National Movement to held Youth Congres in 1928, where young man and women declared Indonesia as one nation, one islands, and one language: Indonesia. Among many women who participate as organizing committee was Sujatin (later-Kartowiyono), a member of Poetri Indonesia. Most of the organization later after the independence day merger and become a mass women’s organization.
The movement achievement was held first Indonesian Women’s Congress 22, December, 1928 in Mataram (Yogyakarta). The project officer for the Congress was Sujatin, with member of the OC Mrs,Sukonto and Nyi Hajar Dewantara, The first congress attended by various women’s organization from throughout Indonesia. The women has similar goal to recommend such as equality for education with increasing school for women, economics support for widow and orphan by colonial government and not to cut welfare benefit. First Indonesian women’s congress agreed to held congress each year. The name for the umbrella organization is PPI (Perikatan Perempuan Indonesia-Federation of Indonesian Women, later in 1946 Kowani-Indonesian Women’s Congress), In congress 1938, women’s demand a representative in People Council, and proposed Maria Ulfah, but then Dutch woman was elected.
The were extraordinary movement within this period, was that current women’s issues such as prostitution, reproduction rights, economic independent, marital leave already brought into serious discussion. The women even brought the issues to formal level, which was to colonial government. Those was shown when the Special Commission Report on to examined less fortune people in village in 1914, where nine women has given their thought about women’s situation. As Raden Ayu Siti Sundari wrote in Wanito Sworo (Women’s Voice) about education and the right of women to have profession and has income as well to have equal paid for equal work. There were much discussion about trafficking women, and in 1938 PPI initiate to form P4A (Perkumpulan Pemberantasan Perdagangan Perempuan dan Anak- Association for Abolition of Trade in Women and Children)
During Japanese occupation 1942-1945, women’s movement forced to help Japanese as follow with male. There were Barisan Pekerja Perempuan PUTERA (Pusat Tenaga Rakyat-Center for People’s Power), as women’s branch of PUTERA, and create FUJINKAI for wives of highest officials.
Within this period too, women from all over Indonesia especially Java, brought as slave of jugun ianfu. Where women being forced to leave their homes and works for Japanese soldiers, as slave of sex slave. They were sent to abroad, even to outside Indonesia.
Women’s movement continued their struggle with male counterpart in time proclamation day 17 Agustus 1945. of Independence Revolution.
1945-1949 Independence Revolution
This was where women put aside their interest and joined the military action with male counterpart. Women’s too, formed organization to support the fully independence of Indonesia. One of the organization Wani (Wanita Indonesia or Indonesian Women). Most of the member of women’s movement involved in public kitchen or logistic for Indonesian soldiers. But there were a lot of them who join in women’s military squad as Laskar Wanita.
By the year 1947, Soekarno, the first president of Indonesia launch his book Sarinah. It was a book to inspired women to work together with male counterpart against imperialism and colonialism. This was a book to mobilized women. At the last chapter of the book, Soekarno gave Indonesian women promise that if Indonesia independent has achieved, Indonesian women too will have their freedom.
It was Soekarno too, who was elected a woman as a minister, In 1946, Maria Ulfah Santoso has been appointed to be a Social Minister for Sjahrir (prime minister) Cabinet. Maria Ulfah was an activist of PSI (Socialist Party of Indonesia). Woman formed party too, it was Women’s People’s Party (Partai Rakyat Wanita, 1946). And SK Trimurty as the second woman minister as Labor Minister in 1946.
1950-1965 Guided Democracy
This period was the most lively women’s movement the same as the situation in national political sphere. Women’s issue on marriage as prominent discourse has caused women’s divergence to two way of looking on polygyny. This happened after Sukarno marriage a second wife Hartini 1954, and in 1952 the Government Regulation No.19 Year 1952 (PP No.19/Thn.1952 allowed civil servant to have more than one wife. This period too, women bond to male party. And many women’s organization has similarity with their umbrella party.
As for polygyny, there were mass demonstration which initiated by PERWARI (Persatuan Wanita Republik Indonesia) to abolish the Government Regulation No.19 Year 1952. Other women’s organization which follow the demonstration are, GERWIS (later become GERWANI), and Wanita Katholik. Islamic women’s organization whose agreed with the regulation were Aisyiah and Muslimat. Muslimat was women’s wing of Masyumi Party.
1966-1982 The time of Vacuum
Early before Soekarno’s fall many of new women’s organization separate between three ideological backgrounds. There were influence by Islam, Nationalist and Socialist-Communist. Because socialist party has been banned by Sukarno’s government, the communist influence become largest part of the situation. And there were a new movement of from the army-link. It was the growing influence of Bhayangkari, women’s organization of police wife, and Dharma Pertiwi organization of the wife of army.
The Sukarno’s fall, and succeeded by General Suharto, caused many women’s organization invalid. Women’s organization suspected to involved in the coup or has link with communist party has been banned. The leaders and members of that organization were being imprison. If not, women who ever joined the communist – link organization, has to hide themselves, or their views. The military regime create a monolithic system of women organization. There are Dharma Wanita for wife of civil servant, Bhayangkary for wife of police officers, PKK for women in general, whether in rural or urban. The head of PKK was the wife of official in local to national level of government. This was the vacuum period of true women’s movement.
1982-2000 The hope
In 1982 the beginning of second phase women’s movement in Indonesia. It was when the Kalyanamitra, an Non Government Organization was formed. Formed by several women’s students from University of Indonesia as Sita Aripurnami, Mira Dyarsi and Ratna Saptari. The activity begin with the information and documentation for women. It was a place for everyone who wants to know the information about women’s issue could come. Later the organization works for advocating women’s issues, as women’s against violence, counseling and women’s in politics,
Due to repressive government of Suharto, the organization sometimes has to face threat by the police of intelligence agency where they find the publication by Kalyanamitra was subversive.
After Kalyanamitra other women organization formed, it was LBH APIK (Indonesian Women’s Association for Justice) 1994 which focus work to help women get legal aid it was formed by Nursyahbani Katjasungkana, Nur Amelia, Tumbu Saraswati and Rita Serena Kolibonso, Solidaritas Perempuan (Women Solidarity)1992 to help women’s migrant worker to have aid, advocacy and information among the pioneer was Taty Krisnawati and Cita Anjangsejati, Jurnal Perempuan (women’s journal) 1996 feminist journal for public readers,
Before Suharto’s fall in 1998 was blessing in disguise for women. Women’s voice become loud, and they tried to make voice even hard heard. The situation was very hard for women, high price for milk and rice, women was so hard to manage their family needs. So it was women who initiate the movement against Suharto, by using femaleness. Women formed Suara Ibu Peduli, they held demonstration in center city. Three women capture by police and held for almost 23 hours to be interograted. It was the beginning of the fall of Suharto.
The May riot 1998, has caused women’s victims of rape, make community against violence concern and proposed to government to form Komisi Nasional Anti Kekerasan Terhadap Perempuan (National Commission of Women’s Against Violence) 1998 which help women’s nationally to coordinating to create a more conducive and saver for women’s survivor of violence. In 1998 too, women held congress which attended by women from various background, they comes from many organization and individual, after the congress they formed yet, another mass women’s organization Koalisi Perempuan Indonesia untuk Keadilan dan Demokrasi (Indonesian Women’s Coalition for Justice and Democracy), and in 2000, several women’s students and University of Indonesia Alumny formed CERMIN Perempuan Memandang Dunia a young feminist tabloid, it was a organization merely to publish tabloid which speak national and local issue with women’s perspective and using a popular language.
>The politization of Gender Relation in Indonesia, Saskia Wrienga, Academisch Proefschrift, Geboren te Amsterdam 1995
>Peranan dan Kedudukan Wanita Indonesia, Ny,Maria Ulfah Subadio S.H., Dr,Ny. T,O Ihromi Gajah Mada Univ, Press 1978,