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Indonesia Feminist Theory and Practices

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April 2015

Kartini Life of Remarkable Woman

Kartini Life of Remarkable Woman

Kartini, her life might be short, but her spirit lives the longest time than any Indonesian Woman ever lived. She died very young, at the age 24, shortly after gave birth her only son. She was born 21 April, 1879, and died 17 September 1904. Her birthday is celebrate by Indonesia, as State by Presidential Decree BNo.104/1964 as National Hero, and her birthday commemorate the day as Kartini’s Day.

She was the leader of her female sibling in her ‘royal’ family, in a district in of Java aristocracy. Seven years after Kartini passed away her thoughts; feelings and her dreams for were shared to the world. She was no longer a leader of her female siblings; she is a leader for women all over the Archipelago, especially educated women in early independent era of Indonesia.

Kartini was a very passionate woman, a very creative and attractive in her way to embraced honesty and sincerity. Her passion is not only with things that she loved, also with anything that relate to life and people. She was very passionate when she has a time to talk about sculptor of whom she sometimes ordered for her friends abroad. She was very passionate when talk about how she wanted for Indonesian women to be independent. She talked about how people in the village are the people who lived very simple life but they can create piece of arts. It was Kartini who took seriously about art of common people, encourage them to increase their ability and gave the order to made goods from her friends abroad. It was Kartini, the first woman, the pioneer who dare to think and act as she did, when no one dare to think as hers, even more to speak up her mind like Kartini did, it make her a great woman ever.

Kartini has always been concern other than herself, if she concerned about herself she was in awe that maybe what her act will bother or disturb other people. Although she then did many of those things she feared, it was what she was done mostly for others, even it only in her speech, or her dreams, or her hopes. She mostly mention if or when women done these, have chanced to do these or those thing it will be good for community for people and for the Nation.

That is why she often criticized any action that might degrade and create disadvantage for women or people. Most of Kartini statements were empirical and most of her judgments of critics base on facts, morality and politics in principle.

Kartini has tremendous opportunity yet had to face the great obstacles herself. It might be that her privilege in one side is her curse on the other. As part of Javanese aristocrat Kartini had a chance to know Western education (Latin alphabets, and could read, and learnt Dutch Language), yet Javanese culture still consider women have not rights to educated, especially western education. Bu Kartini was an exeption in many fate of her lives. Her ancestor has started exercised the rights given by The Colonial government. To have education, a western education. Her father started to send his daughters to school to get education. Kartini’s father, Adipati Sostroningrat, was one of the pioneers for his advance for Indonesian women. It all cost many: sacrifice, conflict and rumours among aristocrats during his times (1880s).

And gain, Kartini, whe she reached 12 years old, had to stop what she like the most, her study. She had to stop schooling. And she had to live inside her family house and had to learn to behave of becoming an adult aristocrat. She lived in vain. For all her childhood has open up herself of other world, other thought, other situation outside her world, and yet she has to stop and buried herself inside a house. Fortunately her loving father gave her a substitute for her sorrow, by giving her and bought books, magazine and hired a tutor. Also Kartini had a chance to meet her father colleagues and friends. Out of that Kartini has chosen several to be her long lasting best friends (Mrs.Rosa Abendanon and Mrs.Ovink Stoer).

Almost all any issue in life were written by Kartini. Kartini speak her mind after she discussed with friends, reading and through her experienced. She talked about arts and cultures; education; religion; class; violence; injustice; social; politics and economic. No wonder her letters are inspires many to wrote out of her thought. And I am proud as her follower, I can claim that her struggle is the most comprehensive and complete resistence to patriarchal. She spoke her methods and act upon it. She fight with words and do the words. I may say she was unlike a suffragettes in UK, and first wave feminist in US who fight for women’s vote, of whom mostly concetrate in education and politics. Kartini do many things, thought many things, and mostly what she said more than hundred years still relevance in today’s world. And as Nusantarawati, I am glad that Kartini saw there were nobility in Nusantara’s culture yet, she too did not doubt to criticize what not noble.

Fight for Others

At the time of Kartini lives, how many women with the same status and privilege who fight for others. Very few. Why. It will ruin their privilege, and might harm the family. But she continued to fights and spoken her mind. Sometimes her father will warn her to behave. But it was Kartini who for people in nowadays who did not understand her circumstances might find her surrender to her situation. Many sees her surrendered to polygamy, and to pingitan system: a system in which girl has to stay at home most of the time and doesnt permit to associate with outside the home environment. But those acts not surrendered. She continue fight in her own way. Kartini read and write at her room, during her pingitan. Her father bought her books, magazine of different languange, most in Dutch. She absord knowledge by herself. She mirror many stories to Javanese people existences. She mirror her reading of Hilda van Suylenburg by Mevrouw Goekoop, a novel about a women emancipation.

@Umi Lasminah

Kartini 2015

Hari Kartini 2015

Setiap tahun tanggal 21 April kita seringkali disuguhkan tulisan para pengkritik Kartini, Raden Ajeng, Raden Ayu putri bangsawan Jepara. Kartini seorang perempuan Jepara yang meninggalkan jejak tulisan surat-suratnya maupun tulisan opini dan laporan, yang semuanya berbahasa Belanda. Tulisan yang sarat dengan pemikiran, curahan hati dan harapan bagi bangsa Nusantara.
Hampir setiap tahun pula, biasanya saya akan menuliskan pembelaan pada Kartini, pada perjuangannya, pada sikap akhirnya yang menikah. Ya pembelaan karena masih saja ada laki-laki atau perempuan yang meragukan ketulusan Kartini berjuang bagi negerinya bagi bangsa dan khususnya bagi perempuan.

Tahun 2015 ini saya belum tahu siapa laki-laki atau perempuan yang akan menuliskan ‘penghinaan’ terhadap Kartini, semoga saja tidak ada. Karena saya yakin mereka umumnya tidak membaca tulisan dan surat-surat Kartini. Lumayan menggembirakan pada tahun 2015 ini, karena banyak kegiatan yang dilaksanakan untuk memperingati kelahiran Kartini dengan kegiatan positif. Di antaranya dengan “Seminar Kekerasan terhadap Perempuan dan Anak Kota Depok, Jawa Barat” yang diprakarsai oleh anggota DPRD Depok Sahat Farida Berlian, juga “Diskusi Merayakan Kartini, Kondisi Perempuan di Industri Media” yang antara lain dimotori oleh Luviana seorang perempuan aktivis jurnalis. Ada juga banyak kegiatan lain yang dilaksanakan di berbagai daerah. Melihat penghargaan atas apa yang telah dilakukan Kartini untuk terus dilanjutkan perjuangannya oleh perempuan berbagai latar belakang suku maupun, Sahat Tarida adalah keturunan Sumatera Utara, Luviana dari Yogyakarta, dan saya sendiri berlatar belakang Sunda. Sesungguhnya Kartini tidak hanya memaparkan pengalaman penindasan yang dialami bangsa Indonesia, penindasan terhadap perempuan adalah fenomena dunia dan pada masa ditulisnya Indonesia, tak heran dalam surat terjemahan “Door Duisternis tot Licht,” (Habis Gelap Terbitlah Terang) ke bahasa Inggris Letter to Javanese Princess, oleh Agnes Louise Symmers. Rye, New York April, 1920 “Kartini has stood the test of time. To the modem progressive Javanese she is a national heroine, almost a patron saint. Her influence and her work live, and are a vital factor in the prosperity and happiness of her country”.

Pengakuan atas perjuangan Kartini oleh bangsa lain, suku yang beragam adalah fakta plural nya latar belakang perempuan yang mendukung perjuangan Kartini, namun tunggal dalam pengalaman sehingga mengakui dan menerima paparan Kartini dalam surat-suratnya tentang harapan dan cita-cita persamaan manusia, laki-laki dan perempuan.

Mengingat Hari Kartini 2015, menginat perempuan seluruh dunia dengan latar belakang berbeda, namun menyadari pengalaman sama, sebagai perempuan, sebagaimana pengalaman biologisnya. Untuk itulah kiranya dapat menjadikan kita bersama-sama go beyond melampaui perbedaan yang ada apapun itu, kembali ke diri sebagai perempuan menolong perempuan.

Diskusi Seksualitas Megawati Institute

(Jkt 15-4-2015) Diskusi mengupas buku Mengupas Seksualitas karya Prof. Musdah Mulia, Bertempat di Megawati Institute jln. Prolamasi menghadirkan pembicara dari PKBI Frey Nababan, Baby Jim Aditya (Psikolog), Irwan Hidayana (Dosen Antropologi UI) dengan moderator Steve Suleeman (Dosen STT Jakarta). Steven Suleeman sendiri adalah Pendeta dari Sekolah Teologi Jakarta dimana sekolah tinggi ini telah mengirimkan murid-murid untuk belajar terkait isu LGBTQ sejak 2003, dan mengedepankan bahwa keadilan seksual adalah juga bagian dari penghargaan martabat manusia.

Didalam paparannya Frey Nababan mengungkapkan aspek sosial yang melahirkan binaritas perspektif tentang seksualitas yaitu normal untuk prokreasi, perkawinan dan antara laki-laki dan perempuan, sehingga diluar hal tersebut dianggap tidak normal. Pada akhirnya melahirkan tabu, melahirkan wacana bahwa isu seksualitas adalah isu orang dewasa, urusan orang tua. sehingga anak-anak tidak paham dan tak mendapat informasi cukup mengenai seks. Hal ini pula mengakibatkan kehamilan tak diinginkan, HIV Aids, dan kekerasan seksual. Buku Mengupas Seksualitas juga membahas hak-hak seksual bagi perempuan. Bahwa perempuan juga berhak berhasrat, berhak mendapatkan pilihan perempuan dan laki-laki termasuk semuanya termasuk mereka penyandang disabilitas punya hak.

Baby Jim Aditya selaku aktivis advokasi isu Aids dan seksualitas, kini juga membantu Kementerian Hukum dan HAM di lembaga pemasyarakatan, Memulai presentasinya ia sedikit mempetanyakan seakan identitas seksual menjadi penting, lebih penting dari pikirannya. Pembahasan seksualitas tak bisa dilepaskan dari politik, dari relasi kuasa. Karena siapa yang menguasai dialah yang mendominasi wacana, termasuk Heteroseksuanormatif. Sebagai aktivis yang sehari-hari terjun langsung di antara supir truk, PSK dan kini ibu rumah tangga yang banyak terkena AIDS/HIV Baby Jim menegaskan bahwa pemahaman seksual kini masih cenderung diarahkan dititikberatkan pada seks hanyalah reproduksi. Pemaparan juga mengungkapkan tentang perbedaan seks dalam kategori sosial dan biological. Mengutip Albert Kingsley tentang homoseksual, heteroseksual dan Biseksual, juga ada paparan tentang perkembangan terkini terkait seksualitas yaitu transgender, transeksual dan interseksual.

Terakhir Irwan Hidayana memaparkan bahwa melalui buku ini, kiranya akan ada tulisan lanjutan yang lebih mendalam tentang berbagai isu dan tema yang ditulis dari buku ini. Pada intinya menganggap esensi manusia adalah mahluk seksual.gmbr

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