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22 DESEMBER 1928,PEREMPUAN BERSATU MELAWAN KEKERASAN PEREMPUAN

22desember20062.jpgantipoligami2.jpgGerakan Tolak Poligami 2006, copywright foto Wilmar WitoelarDemonstration against polygamy 1953

Belajar dari Sejarah Pendahulu Gerakan Perempuan

Memperingati HARI IBU ( Hari Gerakan Perempuan) 22 Desember 2006

22 DESEMBER 1928 PEREMPUAN BERSATU MELAWAN KEKERASAN PEREMPUAN

PERINGATAN HARI IBU DIPUTUSKAN PADA KONGRES PEREMPUAN 1938, DALAM ARTI IBU BANGSA, AGAR IBU MENDIDIK PUTRA-PUTRI UNTUK MEMILIKI NILAI-NILAI NASIONALISME DAN KEBANGSAAN

Sejarah Gerakan perempuan Indonesia tak lepas dari gerakan social pada umumnya. Perempuan aktif dalam kegiatan organisasi pemuda organisasi berlatar belakang kedaerahan seperti Jong Java, Jong Sumatra atau Jong Ambon. Perempuan Indonesia juga aktivis pergerakan nasional, meski nama dan kerjanya tidak dicatat sejarah. Faktanya perempuan ikut mendeklarasian Sumpah Pemuda 28 Oktober 1928. Saat itu pada organisasi umum juga divisi perempuan seperti Wanito Tomo dari Boedi Oetomo, Poetri Indonesia dari Poetra Indonesia dan Wanita Taman Siswa dari Taman Siswa. Organisasi perempuan yang berdiri di awal gerakan di antaranya adalah Putri Mardika, 1916.

Perempuan pelopor yang menjadi panitia pelaksana Kongres Perempuan Indonesia I 928 dan ikut dalam deklarasi Sumpah Pemuda 1928 antara lain Soejatin, Nyi Hajar Dewantoro, Sitti Sundari dan lain-lain. Merekalah inisiator dan penggerak Kongres Perempuan Pertama 22 Desember 1928.

Kongres Perempuan Indonesia pertama 1928 adalah Momentum Kesadaran Kolektif Perempuan Indonesia untuk memperjuangkan hak-hak perempuan bersama-sama. Kesadaran mengenai berbagai permasalahan yang hingga kini, tahun 2006 masih relevan: poligami, perdagangan orang, kekerasan, dan buruh perempuan

SEKILAS GERAKAN PEREMPUAN 1928-1935 ISU-ISU DAN UPAYA GERAKAN PEREMPUAN INDONESIA

Kongres Perempuan Pertama 22-25 Desember 1928

Kongres Perempuan Indonesia 1928 bersifat kooperatif. Artinya perjuangan dilakukan dengan menjalin kerja sama dengan pemerintah kolonial. Secara resmi Kongres mengakui pemerintah kolonial, dan mengajukan usulan pada pemerintah. Ini strategi untuk memudahkan penyebarluasan gagasan kepada perempuan dan masyarakat umum, terutama pihak kolonial. Sehingga perempuan kelas menengah atau bangsawan tidak takut bergabung atau ikut serta dengan anggapan tidak radikal. Pemerintah kolonial sendiri masih memiliki nostalgia keberhasilan politik etis (kemajuan pendidikan bangsa bumi putra) pada perempuan. Juga adanya anggapan pemerintah dan masyarakat, mengenai stereotipe kegiatan perempuan dan organisasi perempuan yang bersifat social dan hobby. Organisasi perempuan dianggap tidak-politis. Strategi ini diperkuat dengan keputusan Kongres untuk tidak membicarakan “politik” dalam arti umum. Kongres menekankan pembahasan masalah perempuan sesuai anggapan umum dan pemerintah kolonial, sebagai tidak-politis.

Perempuan dengan berbagai latar belakang suku, agama, kelas, dan ras Berkumpul dan bersatu dalam Kongres yang dilaksanakan di Mataram (Yogyakarta, sekarang pen.). Umumnya yang hadir dalah perempuan muda. Persiapan Kongres dilakukan di Jakarta, dengan susunan panitia: Nn. Soejatin dari Poetri Indonesia sebagai Ketua Pelaksana, Nyi Hajar Dewantara dari Wanita Taman Siswa sebagai Ketua Kongres, dan Ny. Soekonto dari Wanito Tomo sebagai Wakil Ketua.

Kongres dihadiri perwakilan 30 organisasi perempuan dari seluruh Indonesia, di antaranya adalah Putri Indonesia, Wanito Tomo, Wanito Muljo, Wanita Katolik, Aisjiah, Ina Tuni dari Ambon, Jong Islamieten Bond bagian Wanita, Jong Java Meisjeskring, Poetri Boedi Sedjati, Poetri Mardika dan Wanita Taman Siswa.

Berbagai isu utama masalah perempuan dibahas pada rapat terbuka. Topiknya antarea lain: kedudukan perempuan dalam perkawinan; perempuan ditunjuk, dikawin dan diceraikan di luar kemauannya; poligami; dan pendidikan bagi anak perempuan. Pembahasan melahirkan debat dan perbedaan pendapat dari berbagai organisasi perempuan. Walaupun begitu tak menghalangi kenyataan yang diyakini bersama, yaitu perempuan perlu lebih maju. Berdasarkan hasil pembahasan antara lain Kongres memutuskan:

1. mengirimkan mosi kepada pemerintah kolonial untuk menambah sekolah bagi anak perempuan;

2. pemerintah wajib memberikna surat keterangan pada waktu nikah (undang undang perkawinan); dan segeranya

3. memberikan beasiswa bagi siswa perempuan yang memiliki kemampuan belajar tetapi tidak memiliki biaya pendidikan, lembaga itu disebut stuidie fonds;

4. mendirikan suatu lembaga dan mendirikan kursus pemberatasan buta huruf, kursus kesehatan serta mengaktifkan usaha pemberantasan perkawinan kanak-kanak;

Selain putusan di atas, berbagai perkumpulan berdiri atas inisiatif peserta Kongres untuk membela dan melindungi hak perempuan, di antaranya Perkumpulan Pemberantasan Perdagangan Perempuan dan Anak-anak (P4A) untuk didirikan 1929. Pendirian perkumpulan itu disebabkan oleh merajelanya perdagangan anak perempuan.

Kongres-kogres Perempuan Indonesia selanjutnya

Tak jauh berbeda pembahasan berbagai permasalahan perempuan 1928 Kongres Perempuan Selanjutnya tahun 1929, 1930, 1935. Kongres untuk kordinasi selanjutnya bernama Kongres Perikatan Perkumpulan Perempuan Indonesia.

Kongres Perempuan, Jakarta 28-31 Desember 1929

Permasalahan perkawinan khususnya poligami, kawin paksa dan perkawinan anak-anak juga menjadi topik yang dibahas tersendiri. Kongres memutuskan antara lain: meningkatkan nasib dan derajat perempuan Indonesia dengan tidak mengkaitkan diri dengan soal politik dan agama; mengajukan mosi kepada pemerintah untuk menghapuskan pergundikan.

Kongres sempat diwarnai ketegangan dan kepanitiaan hampir kacau karena Kongres hampir dilarang pemerintah. Hal itu terkait dengan situasi saat itu, yaitu Bung Karno ditangkap di Yogyakarta. Kantor dan tempat gedung pertemuan sempat digeledah polisi. Akhirnya Kongres tetap dijinkan dan berlangsung, di Gedung Thamrin di Gang Kenari Jakarta.

Kongres terbuka didukung juga massa rakyat yang memekikan, “yel-yel merdeka!”. Gedung tempat pelaksanaan Kongres menjadi menggelegar. Polisi mengawasi mengancam akan membubarkan. Salah seorang pemimpin sidang menyerahkan kendali situasi kepada Soejatin (Poetri Indonesia), ketua pelaksana Kongres Perempuan Pertama 1928. Sambutan demi sambutan diakhiri dengan pekikan “Merdeka, Sekarang!” Maka ruangan kembali riuh. Ketika polisi akan membubarkan, Soejatin mengetuk palu rapat selesai dan ditutup, rapat selanjutnya dilakukan tertutup.

Kongres menyatakan keprihatinannya dengan penangkapan Sukarno dengan membatalkan rencana akan mengadakan pameran dan malam penutupan.


Kongres Perikatan Perkumpulan Istri Indonesia, Surabaya 13-18 Desember 1930,

Ketua Kongres Ny. Siti Soedari Soedirman. Keputusan Kongres yang sangat relevan dengan kekinian antara lain mendirikan Badan Pemberantasan Perdagangan Perempuan dan Anak-anak (BPPPA) yang diketuai oleh Ny. Sunarjati Sukemi. Terbentuknya BPPPA disebabkan keprihatinan yang mendalam atas nasib yang menimpa anak-anak peremepuan yang terkena praktek JERATAN UTANG Cina Mindering, yaitu petani meminjam uang dengan bunga sangat tinggi dan tidak dapat mengembalikannya, sehingga sering anak gadis petani dijadikan penebus hutang-hutang itu. Kongres juga mengangkat isu buruh perempuan, khususnya nasib buruh pabrik batik di Lasem, dan memberikan penyuluhan peningkatan kesadaran bagi pembatik.

Kongres Perempuan Indonesia, Jakarta 20-24 Juli 1935


Kongres Perempuan Indonesia tahun 1935 diikuti tidak kurang dari 15 organisasi, di antaranya Wanita Katolik Indonesia, Poetri Indonesia, Poetri Boedi Sedjati, Aijsiah, Istri Sedar, Wanita Taman Siswa dsb. Ketua Kongres Ny. Sri Mangunsarkoro. Keputusan Kongres antara lain: Kongres memutuskan: mendirikan Badan Penyelidikan Perburuhan Perempuan yang berfungsi meneliti pekerjaan yang dilakukan perempuan Indonesia; meningkatkan pemberantasan buta huruf; mengadakan hubungan dengan perkumpulan pemuda, khususnya organisasi putri; mendasari perasaan kebangsaan, pekerjaan sosial dan kenetralan pada agama; Perempuan Indonesia berkewajiban berusaha supaya generasi baru sadar akan kewajiban kebangsaan: ia berkewajiban menjadi “Ibu Bangsa”.

Kongres Perempuan Indonesia, Bandung, Juli 1938

Kongres dikuti: Poetri Indonesia, Poetri Boedi Sedjati, Wanito Tomo, Aisjiah, Wanita Katolik dan Wanita Taman Siswa. Ketua Kongres Ny. Emma Puradiredja. Isu dibahas antara lain, partisipasi perempuan dalam politik, khususnya mengenai hak dipilih. Pemerintah kolonial memberikan hak dipilih bagi perempuan untuk Badan Perwakilan. Perempuan yang menjadi anggota Dewan Kota (Gementeraad): Ny. Emma Puradiredja, Ny. Sri Umiyati, Ny. Soenarjo Mangunpuspito dan Ny. Sitti Soendari. Karena perempuan belum mempunyai hak pilih, maka Kongres menuntut perempuan punya hak memilih.

Kongres memutuskan: tanggal 22 Desember diperingati sebagai “Hari Ibu” dengan arti seperti yang dimaksud dalam keputusan Kongres tahun 1935; membangun Komisi Perkawinan untuk merancang peraturan perkawinan yang seadil-adilnya tanpa menyinggung pihak yang beragama Islam.

PERJALANAN GERAKAN PEREMPUAN INDONESIA SUDAH PANJANG. KEKERASAN PEREMPUAN (Perdagangan perempuan,kawin paksa), MASALAH PERKAWINAN DAN POLIGAMI TELAH MENJADI TOPIK YANG TAK HABIS-HABISNYA DIBAHAS SEJAK 1928.


TAHUN 2006, POLIGAMI SEMAKIN MARAK,

APAKAH PEREMPUAN HANYA TINGGAL DIAM?

Daftar Kepustakaan

Hardi, Lasmidjah, ed. 1981. Sumbangsihku Bagi Ibu Pertiwi (Kumpulan Pengalaman dan Pemikiran), Buku I. Jakarta: Yayasan Wanita Pejuang.

Hardi, Lasmidjah, ed. 1985. Sumbangsihku Bagi Ibu Pertiwi (Kumpulan Pengalam dan Pemikiran), Buku V. Jakarta: Yayasan Wanita Pejuang.

Suwondo, Nani, S.H. 1968. Kedudukan Wanita Indonesia dalam Hukum dan Masyarakat. Jakarta: Timun Mas.

Siaran Perwari, Tahun I No.3 Desember 1950

(@Umi Lasmina, 22 Desember 2006)

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Brief History, Road of Indonesia Women Movement

youth feminist
youth feminist

women activist 1929women activist 1938

Brief History, Road of Indonesia Women Movement

Brief History
The road of Indonesian Women Movement

Before Independence Day: – 1945
Women’s movement joint with male counterpart with general organization to fight for independence—the National Movement period. This was a diplomacy struggle.
Inspired by Kartini’s (see Letter of Javanese Princess, Clifford Geertz)letter youth within youth organization bring out nationalism to the movement.

Those women’s organization such as Putri Mardika 1914 in Jakarta, Women’s wing of Boedi Oetomo 1920 in Yogyakarta, Siti Fatimah women’s wing of Sarekat Islam in 1918. Aisyiah 1912, women’s wing of Muhamadiyah and Poetri Indonesia,

Among those organization they become actively involved in National Movement to held Youth Congres in 1928, where young man and women declared Indonesia as one nation, one islands, and one language: Indonesia. Among many women who participate as organizing committee was Sujatin (later-Kartowiyono), a member of Poetri Indonesia. Most of the organization later after the independence day merger and become a mass women’s organization.

The movement achievement was held first Indonesian Women’s Congress 22, December, 1928 in Mataram (Yogyakarta). The project officer for the Congress was Sujatin, with member of the OC Mrs,Sukonto and Nyi Hajar Dewantara, The first congress attended by various women’s organization from throughout Indonesia. The women has similar goal to recommend such as equality for education with increasing school for women, economics support for widow and orphan by colonial government and not to cut welfare benefit. First Indonesian women’s congress agreed to held congress each year. The name for the umbrella organization is PPI (Perikatan Perempuan Indonesia-Federation of Indonesian Women, later in 1946 Kowani-Indonesian Women’s Congress), In congress 1938, women’s demand a representative in People Council, and proposed Maria Ulfah, but then Dutch woman was elected.

The were extraordinary movement within this period, was that current women’s issues such as prostitution, reproduction rights, economic independent, marital leave already brought into serious discussion. The women even brought the issues to formal level, which was to colonial government. Those was shown when the Special Commission Report on to examined less fortune people in village in 1914, where nine women has given their thought about women’s situation. As Raden Ayu Siti Sundari wrote in Wanito Sworo (Women’s Voice) about education and the right of women to have profession and has income as well to have equal paid for equal work. There were much discussion about trafficking women, and in 1938 PPI initiate to form P4A (Perkumpulan Pemberantasan Perdagangan Perempuan dan Anak- Association for Abolition of Trade in Women and Children)

During Japanese occupation 1942-1945, women’s movement forced to help Japanese as follow with male. There were Barisan Pekerja Perempuan PUTERA (Pusat Tenaga Rakyat-Center for People’s Power), as women’s branch of PUTERA, and create FUJINKAI for wives of highest officials.
Within this period too, women from all over Indonesia especially Java, brought as slave of jugun ianfu. Where women being forced to leave their homes and works for Japanese soldiers, as slave of sex slave. They were sent to abroad, even to outside Indonesia.

Women’s movement continued their struggle with male counterpart in time proclamation day 17 Agustus 1945. of Independence Revolution.

1945-1949 Independence Revolution

This was where women put aside their interest and joined the military action with male counterpart. Women’s too, formed organization to support the fully independence of Indonesia. One of the organization Wani (Wanita Indonesia or Indonesian Women). Most of the member of women’s movement involved in public kitchen or logistic for Indonesian soldiers. But there were a lot of them who join in women’s military squad as Laskar Wanita.

By the year 1947, Soekarno, the first president of Indonesia launch his book Sarinah. It was a book to inspired women to work together with male counterpart against imperialism and colonialism. This was a book to mobilized women. At the last chapter of the book, Soekarno gave Indonesian women promise that if Indonesia independent has achieved, Indonesian women too will have their freedom.

It was Soekarno too, who was elected a woman as a minister, In 1946, Maria Ulfah Santoso has been appointed to be a Social Minister for Sjahrir (prime minister) Cabinet. Maria Ulfah was an activist of PSI (Socialist Party of Indonesia). Woman formed party too, it was Women’s People’s Party (Partai Rakyat Wanita, 1946). And SK Trimurty as the second woman minister as Labor Minister in 1946.

1950-1965 Guided Democracy

This period was the most lively women’s movement the same as the situation in national political sphere. Women’s issue on marriage as prominent discourse has caused women’s divergence to two way of looking on polygyny. This happened after Sukarno marriage a second wife Hartini 1954, and in 1952 the Government Regulation No.19 Year 1952 (PP No.19/Thn.1952 allowed civil servant to have more than one wife. This period too, women bond to male party. And many women’s organization has similarity with their umbrella party.

As for polygyny, there were mass demonstration which initiated by PERWARI (Persatuan Wanita Republik Indonesia) to abolish the Government Regulation No.19 Year 1952. Other women’s organization which follow the demonstration are, GERWIS (later become GERWANI), and Wanita Katholik. Islamic women’s organization whose agreed with the regulation were Aisyiah and Muslimat. Muslimat was women’s wing of Masyumi Party.

1966-1982 The time of Vacuum

Early before Soekarno’s fall many of new women’s organization separate between three ideological backgrounds. There were influence by Islam, Nationalist and Socialist-Communist. Because socialist party has been banned by Sukarno’s government, the communist influence become largest part of the situation. And there were a new movement of from the army-link. It was the growing influence of Bhayangkari, women’s organization of police wife, and Dharma Pertiwi organization of the wife of army.

The Sukarno’s fall, and succeeded by General Suharto, caused many women’s organization invalid. Women’s organization suspected to involved in the coup or has link with communist party has been banned. The leaders and members of that organization were being imprison. If not, women who ever joined the communist – link organization, has to hide themselves, or their views. The military regime create a monolithic system of women organization. There are Dharma Wanita for wife of civil servant, Bhayangkary for wife of police officers, PKK for women in general, whether in rural or urban. The head of PKK was the wife of official in local to national level of government. This was the vacuum period of true women’s movement.

1982-2000 The hope

In 1982 the beginning of second phase women’s movement in Indonesia. It was when the Kalyanamitra, an Non Government Organization was formed. Formed by several women’s students from University of Indonesia as Sita Aripurnami, Mira Dyarsi and Ratna Saptari. The activity begin with the information and documentation for women. It was a place for everyone who wants to know the information about women’s issue could come. Later the organization works for advocating women’s issues, as women’s against violence, counseling and women’s in politics,

Due to repressive government of Suharto, the organization sometimes has to face threat by the police of intelligence agency where they find the publication by Kalyanamitra was subversive.

After Kalyanamitra other women organization formed, it was LBH APIK (Indonesian Women’s Association for Justice) 1994 which focus work to help women get legal aid it was formed by Nursyahbani Katjasungkana, Nur Amelia, Tumbu Saraswati and Rita Serena Kolibonso, Solidaritas Perempuan (Women Solidarity)1992 to help women’s migrant worker to have aid, advocacy and information among the pioneer was Taty Krisnawati and Cita Anjangsejati, Jurnal Perempuan (women’s journal) 1996 feminist journal for public readers,

Before Suharto’s fall in 1998 was blessing in disguise for women. Women’s voice become loud, and they tried to make voice even hard heard. The situation was very hard for women, high price for milk and rice, women was so hard to manage their family needs. So it was women who initiate the movement against Suharto, by using femaleness. Women formed Suara Ibu Peduli, they held demonstration in center city. Three women capture by police and held for almost 23 hours to be interograted. It was the beginning of the fall of Suharto.

The May riot 1998, has caused women’s victims of rape, make community against violence concern and proposed to government to form Komisi Nasional Anti Kekerasan Terhadap Perempuan (National Commission of Women’s Against Violence) 1998 which help women’s nationally to coordinating to create a more conducive and saver for women’s survivor of violence. In 1998 too, women held congress which attended by women from various background, they comes from many organization and individual, after the congress they formed yet, another mass women’s organization Koalisi Perempuan Indonesia untuk Keadilan dan Demokrasi (Indonesian Women’s Coalition for Justice and Democracy), and in 2000, several women’s students and University of Indonesia Alumny formed CERMIN Perempuan Memandang Dunia a young feminist tabloid, it was a organization merely to publish tabloid which speak national and local issue with women’s perspective and using a popular language.

Reference:

>The politization of Gender Relation in Indonesia, Saskia Wrienga, Academisch Proefschrift, Geboren te Amsterdam 1995
>Peranan dan Kedudukan Wanita Indonesia, Ny,Maria Ulfah Subadio S.H., Dr,Ny. T,O Ihromi Gajah Mada Univ, Press 1978,

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